Research projects and training resources in Beam Instrumentation and Measurements

Dr. Steven Lidia
Senior Physicist, Beam Instrumentation and Measurements Department Manager, FRIB
Adjunct Professor of Physics and Astronomy, and Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Aims

Since the discovery of cathode rays and x-rays using vacuum tubes in the nineteenth century, particle accelerators have become critical tools in a growing number of scientific disciplines ranging from nuclear and particle physics to chemistry, biology, condensed matter physics and material sciences for the investigation of the structure of matter and its interactions. Contemporary and planned accelerators are pushing against several development frontiers. Facilities like the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, the European Spallation Source, FAIR@GSI, IFMIF, SARAF, and others are currently expanding the limits of the intensity frontier of proton and heavy ion beams. These high intensity hadron beams are intrinsically useful for nuclear science as they permit exploration of low cross section reactions with reasonable experimental data collection rates. These same beams, however, also present distinct hazards to machine operation from uncontrolled beam losses. Optimum scientific performance of these facilities requires us to predict and measure the behavior of intense beams.

The development of diagnostic techniques and advanced instrumentation allows the accelerator scientist to create and to tune beamlines that preserve beam quality measures while allowing for precise manipulation and measurement of the beam?s energy, intensity, trajectory, isotope content, and phase space density and correlations. We utilize sophisticated codes to model the dynamics of multi-component particle beams and their electromagnetic and nuclear interaction with materials and devices. We then design sensor devices and components that enable us to make specific measurements of beam parameters. These sensors are paired with electronic data acquisition and control systems to provide timely data to permit beam tuning and to monitor beam behavior and beamline performance. These systems are built and tested in the laboratory before commissioning with beam. Like accelerator science, in general, development of diagnostic techniques involve the understanding and utilization of diverse subject matter from multiple physics and engineering sub-disciplines. Current projects within the group are centered on measurements to understand the behavior of intense, multi-charge state ion beams; high sensitivity and high speed sensors and networks for beam loss monitoring; accurate beam profile monitoring and tomography; non-invasive beam profile measurement techniques; prediction and measurement of beam instabilities; and development of electronics, firmware, and software to interface with these sensors.

Selected Publications

1. P.N. Ostroumov, T. Maruta, S. Cogan, K. Fukushima, S.?H. Kim, S. Lidia, F. Marti, A.?S. Plastun, J. Wei, T. Yoshimoto, T. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Beam commissioning in the first superconducting segment of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams”, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 22, 080101 (2019).
2. Instrumentation and Challenges at FRIB, Presented at the 54th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop, HB2014, East Lansing, MI, November, 2014.
3. P.A. Ni, F.M. Bieniosek, E. Henestroza and S. M. Lidia, "A multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer for warm-dense matter experiments at NDCX-I and NDCX-II", Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 733 (2014), 12-17.
4. J. Coleman, S.M. Lidia, et. al., "Single-pulse and multipulse longitudinal phase space and temperature measurements of an intense ion beam", Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 070101 (2012).
5. Y. Sun, S. Lidia, et. al., "Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector", Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 7, 123501 (2004).
6. T. Houck and S. Lidia, "Beam dynamics experiments to study the suppression of transverse instabilities", Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 030101 (2003).
7. S.M. Lidia, "Beam dynamics studies for the relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator experiment", Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 041001 (2001).
8. T. Lefevre, S. Lidia, et. al., "Free electron laser as a driver for a resonant cavity at 35 GHz", Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1188 (2000).

Projects in Beam Diagnostics, Instrumentation, and Measurements

Beam characterization with fast Faraday cup

* Model pickup response and cable signal dispersion; response function model
* Beam measurements and analysis; inverse transform of response function

Halo Monitor Ring commissioning and calibration

* Calibrated beam loss detection efficiency
* RF detection efficiency

Dipole-mode signal as beam diagnostics in 644 MHz 5-cell cavitites

Profile monitor capacitive monitoring

* Is it possible to use the profile monitor wires as a noninterceptive beam pick up?

Design of low noise amplifier and Hereward circuit for Beam current monitoring

* Switched circuit for short pulse and long pulse droop correction -- include or exclude feedback for low frequency extension

SECAR diagnostic commissioning and calibration

* Beam centering monitor

Non-interceptive profile monitoring for intense ion beams (requires NSF grant, presently unfunded)

* Residual gas or high density sheet ionization/fluorescence, optical transport and analysis.
* Based on GSI, LBNL, CERN/Liverpool designs.
* Transverse and longitudinal profile measurements

Beam Position Monitor (BPM) intensity calibration

* Calibrate intensity measurement of capacitively-coupled BPMs to nearby beam current monitors and/or Faraday cups. Determine the dependence of intensity measure on ion beam position and bunch length.
* Beta, bunch length, position dependency on intensity
* Measurement along LS1, calibrated by BCMs

Schottky-based diagnostic development for rare isotope species identification and energy measurement

* Storage ring based mass separator, high M/dM
* Cavity-based Schottky detector
* EBIT/S charge breeding applications? See Schwarz, S., & Lapierre, A. (2016). Recent charge-breeding developments with EBIS/T devices (invited). Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), [02A910]. DOI: 10.1063/1.4933033

High charge state breeders spectroscopy and intensity measurements

* High sensitivity current measurements (resonant?)
* Schottky or other
* UV/Soft-xray measurements

Intense, narrow-band, tunable, compact UV to Soft X-ray photon source for elemental discrimination of rare isotopes and high charge state ions

* Science case: BECOLA, EBIS/charge breeders
* Compton backscattered photon source
* High rep-rate electron beam photoinjector, booster module and beamline design (ASTRA/IMPACT, PSFish)
* Single pulse or optical storage cavity; uv/xuv optics

BPM signal analysis for longitudinal and transverse emittance compensation in accelerators transporting beams with correlated "energy" spread

* Beam response matrix
* Model building using MatLab-based beam dynamics code, Simulink signal generation and analysis
* Model Independent analysis
* Beams with time-correlated dE/E or dQ/Q, exhibiting synchrotron and cyclotron/betatron oscillations
* Non-interceptive measurements: time-domain and phase detection methods
* Applications - advanced injector systems for high intensity hadron accelerators
* Examples - FRIB LS1, NDCX-II, FAIR/HIDIF injectors (Frankfurt Funneling Expt.)

Beam signal analysis and intra-bunch dynamics of multi-charge state beams

* Analog and digital signal processing ? eg. time-interleaved sampling
* Eg. 5 state beams in LS2

Development of charged particle optical techniques for measurements of 4D phase space correlations

* Tomography
* Slits, quad lattice, screen (FRIB MEBT)
* Development of diagnostic hardware (slits/screen) and controls. Calculation of beam optics and extraction of correlation terms. High level physics application software. Commissioning and measurement.

High dynamic range profile monitoring with wire scanners and radiation monitors

* Fast measurement? High speed sampling?

Scintillator development for low energy light and heavy ions

Halo monitoring with advanced materials - charge collection, photon production and detection

* BNNT, filaments, 2D Buckypaper

Ion beam contaminant monitors for FRIB MEBT. Develop PySRIM model for sensitivity analysis.

* Develop integrated Si detector module for low energy beam contamination studies

Beam scattering and emittance growth from multiple, simultaneous profile monitor measurements

* Explore single and multiple scattering effects of beam distribution from single profile monitor measurement. Incorporate transport optics to extend analysis to multiple profile monitors in simultaneous operation.

Fast processing of errant beam signals for robust machine protection of intense hadron beam

* Aggregate signals from various types of fast-reporting sources (BLMs, BPMs, BCMs, HMRs)

Electronic signal acquisition, conditioning, and processing for multi time scale loss monitoring

* Fast and slow signal processing for FPS response and chronic beam loss detection

Errant beam orbit detection

* Fast MPS based on beam orbit detection with BPMs

Orbit and profile diagnostics for multi-charge-state beams in dispersive beamlines

* Develop tuning techniques utilizing BPM-5 and wire scanners and selection slits

Transverse Quadrupole Instability growth in QWR, HWR linacs

* Single particle transport models
* Multi-charge state - 2 charge state, 5 charge state
* Instrumentation design and implementation
* Testing??

REU Projects

Development of tomographic techniques for Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) phase space measurements

* Use existing models or build new ones to assist in designing schemes for ion beam phase space measurements in the FRIB MEBT beamline.
* Analyze beam optics and develop new diagnostic systems.

Beam characterization with Fast Faraday cup

* Develop a response function of the Fast Faraday Cup which includes sensor and cable dispersion and attenuation. Develop inverse transform of response function to characterize longitudinal beam distribution.

Beam Position Monitor (BPM) intensity calibration

* Calibrate intensity measurement of capacitively-coupled BPMs to nearby beam current monitors and/or Faraday cups. Determine the dependence of intensity measure on ion beam position and bunch length.

Professional Staff Members:

* Enrique Bernal-Ruiz
* Scott Cogan
* Jenna Crisp, emeritus
* Evan Daykin
* Gerlind Kiupel
* Martin Konrad
* Arthur Li
* Igor Nesterenko
* Diego Omitto
* Pedro Rodriguez
* Bruno Martins
* Rebecca Shane
* Robert Webber, emeritus

Graduate Students:

Aubrey Lokey, 2019-present
Christopher Richard, 2015-present

Undergraduate Student Assistants:

Madeline LaBelle, 2015-2017
Benjamin Evans, 2016-2017
Kole Bacon, 2016-2019
Jorge Mateus, 2016-2019
Tynan Ford, 2017-2019
Jacob Herwaltd, 2017-2018
Chai Pedetti, 2018-2019
Sean Dziubinski, 2019-present
Kyle Garcia, 2019-present
Douglas McNanney, 2019-present


* Diagnostic laboratory and test equipment
* NSCL facilities (ReA) and FRIB test stands
* Industry standard software (ANSYS, CST, MatLab, LabView) and HPCC computing facilities
* Access to, and mentoring by, group physics and engineering staff


* ESS (Dr. Andreas Jansson)
* GSI/FAIR (Dr. Peter Forck)
* SNS (Dr. Wim Blokland)

Training and networking opportunities

US Particle Accelerator School